The aim of this paper was to build upon Dalgarno and Lee's model or framework of learning in three‐dimensional (3‐D) virtual learning environments (VLEs) and to extend their road map for further research in this area. The enhanced model shares the common goal with Dalgarno and Lee of identifying the learning benefits from using 3‐D VLEs. The approach adopted here is to attempt a more pedagogical description using the concept of pedagogical immersion as derived from Mayes and Fowler's framework for mapping stages of learning onto types of learning environment. The paper adopts a “design for learning” perspective and in doing so hopes the combined framework will prove useful to those designing learning activities in 3‐D VLEs.


Fowler, C. (2015). Virtual reality and learning: Where is the pedagogy?British journal of educational technology46(2), 412-422. 

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/bjet.12135